Automation allows the work to be done automatically without the need for manpower in industry and all systemic works.
With the increase in population since the industrial revolution, production alone has not been enough. It has become a necessity to make productions fast, reliable and efficient. In industrial systems, this obligation is expected to be solved with automation.
The operation of automation systems is carried out not by a single device, but by the joint work of units that include control units that use many automation technologies together.
Automation systems come to the fore with machines that cannot be done with human power. Moreover, you can minimize your costs thanks to automation systems.Moreover, you do not have to pay expensive fees for machines and automation systems that minimize labor costs.
Automation; efficiency analysis, energy saving and detailed measurements are systems. In addition, it offers the opportunity to make detailed reporting.
Sharing percentages of the job are taken as a basis to determine the level of automation. In automation systems, if manpower is predominant, it is called semi-automation. If the machine power is used intensively, it is called full automation.
Automation systems keep up with the changing and developing world market. It is always necessary to be fast, safe and efficient in order to survive in the competitive conditions in a large and open market. Considering the production systems, the importance of automation is better understood.
Different devices are mentioned for different automation applications. Commonly used devices are systems such as PLC, HMI, SCADA or inverter.
Types of Automation Systems
- Industrial Machine Automation
- Warehouse Automation
- Lighting Automation Systems
- PLC Automation
- Factory Automation
- Building Automation
- Home Automation
Advantages of Automation Systems
- Increase in quality
- Production cost reduction
- Increased competitiveness
- Production cost reduction
- Decrease in occupational accidents
- Time savings can be counted
Disadvantages of Automation Systems
- The disadvantage of automation systems is that the first assembly is costly.
- Cost pays off in most automation systems in a long time.
- With the factory automation systems, the number of factory employees decreases, the investment expenditures of the enterprises increase as a result of the automation and unemployment occurs.
The sharing percentage of the total work determines the level of automation. Automation
systems with intense manpower are defined as semi-automation, and systems with heavy machinery are defined as full automation. Production in industry; Fast, standard, secure, finally efficient is achieved thanks to automation.
ensures that the products used in industrial facilities and many sectors are carried out automatically with machinery, software and equipment instead of the general operation of human control or management. Automation minimizes the possibility of human error. Thanks to the technologies used, it provides the monitoring, optimization and analysis features of the processes.
Job-specific (food automation, various processes, industrial automation) designs and software are realized according to the technology and methods used. In production, factors such as speed, efficiency, quality, repetition capability and programmability must be at optimal levels. Criteria such as planning of processes, control stages, quality assessment, computer-aided design, production capacity should be considered. The reference control methods of the automation types used today are as follows.
Artificial neural network (ANN-Artificial neural network)
- Distributed Control Systems (DCS-Distributed Control System),
- Machine Interface, (HMI-Human Machine Interface),
- Management Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition),
- Programmable Control Systems (PLC-Programmable Logic Controller),
- Robotic and Mechanical Equipment
- Control Systems using automation methods
Various areas where automation is used; Food and beverage production automation in the food industry, indoor and outdoor lighting automation, image processing building automation, industrial automation, autopilot vehicles. Especially with lighting automation, it is possible to control all buildings, parks, street lighting systems from a single point. Control of the system can be done wired or wireless. Lighting scenarios are applied using a computer interface thanks to various active or passive sensors.
Wired, wireless or hybrid building lighting automation protocols; UPB (Universal Powerline Bus), Insteon, Thread, WiFi, 4G, 5G, ZigBee, Bluetooth, DALI, KNX, IoT.
While these protocols are installed in the field, criteria such as power consumption, cost, data rate, distance are evaluated and selection is made. The lighting automation system is designed by taking into account the lighting system, listening, color temperature, on-off, daylight.
Automation technologies are actively used in all areas today. It facilitates all the work in possible issues that human workforce is not of the same quality, repetitive and sustainable. In the near future, with the advancement of artificial intelligence technologies, all machines and production stages are shortened. It is predicted that it can be processed into machines more easily with software activities.